While previous generations had typically paid off their homes before reaching retirement, in the course of a decade-long property boom we’ve borrowed more than ever before to buy our homes, and are now much more likely to be leaving the workforce still paying off that debt.
Why is this an issue? Because the government’s age pension system assumes that Australians will be retiring with a paid-off home to live in at minimal cost, as well as money in their super account to either replace or supplement the modest age pension.
Singles on the full pension receive up to $23,824 a year, while couples receive $35,916 – and these figures include the maximum pension supplement and the energy supplement.
“If you use your super to get rid of your mortgage, that leaves the pension,” says Robert Snell, financial planner at Life Values. “You can survive on that income, but I don’t think many people would see it as enough to enjoy the comfortable retirement they’d hoped for.”
Why more people are retiring with a mortgage
Just about everything that could have happened to prevent future generations of Australians retiring debt-free has.
In his report, No Place Like Home: the impact of declining home ownership on retirement (PDF, 3.8MB), independent economist Saul Eslake examined the impacts of declining home ownership on retirement, observing that in recent decades Australians have been spending longer in the education system, exiting it with Higher Education Contribution Scheme debts that hamper their ability to save for a home deposit, and marrying later in life. The latter is relevant because people often delay purchasing property until they are in a serious relationship.
In addition, no longer required to save the traditional 20 per cent deposit before buying, many Australians have been purchasing homes with deposits of only 10 per cent or even 5 per cent, resulting in proportionately larger mortgages.
While noting that younger Australians may be more interested in travelling and other costly activities than saving for a home deposit, Eslake concludes that the chief reason those aged 25 to 54 don’t own a home, or have a large mortgage if they do, “owes more to economic influences – and in particular the deterioration in housing affordability”.
The implications of this trend
To illustrate what this changing landscape means in real-life terms, Snell gives the example of an average-earning couple, both 25, who bought a house in Sydney a decade ago at what was then the average price of $521,000.
“If they put their minds to it they could have the mortgage paid off by now,” Snell says.
“In contrast, imagine they waited and, at age 35, bought a house now at the average price of $1.15 million. Even if they put their minds to it, there’s just no way that mortgage is going to be paid off for at least 20 years. I’ve run the numbers and by buying at 25 rather than 35, that couple would be $2.3 million ahead by retirement age.”
Snell’s story illustrates what potentially lies ahead both for individuals and for Australian society.
The 2017 Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey showed that between 2011 and 2015 only 9.9 per cent of male retirees and 13.1 per cent of female retirees used their super to pay off debt. But most of those people bought property when housing was still affordable.
The HILDA survey also showed that between 2002 and 2014 the average mortgage debt of homeowners in the 18 to 39 age range increased 99 per cent in real terms from $169,000 to $337,000.
And the situation has almost certainly worsened since then, as house prices continue to grow.
How to pay off your mortgage faster
Encouragingly, with a bit of forward planning and sacrifice it is possible for people paying off a property to enjoy a comfortable retirement.
“That minority of people who think 10, 20 or 25 years ahead and take appropriate action to secure their financial future are the ones most likely to have the money to enjoy life once their careers end,” Snell says.
Snell’s first piece of advice is to forget about taking out a reverse mortgage. “They can work well if you’re 85,” he says. “But at 65 you’re not going to be able to access more than around 20 per cent of the equity in your home through a reverse mortgage.”
While a reverse mortgage won’t save you, what Snell refers to as the ‘Game of Homes’ might.
“Put bluntly, many people have resigned themselves to the fact they will only be able to either get into the housing market, or make a big dent in their existing mortgage, when their parents pass on,” he says.
Those who can’t rely on an inheritance might want to consider downsizing, especially if their children have flown the nest.
“There are tens of thousands of dollars of costs involved in selling the family home and moving to a cheaper one,” says Snell. “Nonetheless, if you’ve got $300,000 owing on the mortgage and you move to a house or apartment that’s over $300,000 cheaper, then that’s your debt problem solved.”
Alternatively, as younger Australians are endlessly exhorted to, middle-aged mortgagors can cut back on expenses – overseas holidays, new cars, smashed avocado on toast – and throw every spare dollar into shrinking the mortgage.
This strategy can be turbocharged by accessing super early and using it to clear your mortgage before you stop working.
“People can opt for a ‘transition-to-retirement’ pension,” Snell explains. “Once you reach what’s known as ‘preservation age’ – which is between 55 and 60, depending on when you were born – you can take out up to 10 per cent of your super balance each year. [So] if you had, say, $300,000 in super you could take out $20,000 to $30,000 during your final years in the workforce and put that towards paying down your mortgage.”
A solid investment
There are good reasons why Australians down the ages have prioritised paying off their house before contemplating other investments.
“You can put money into voluntary super contributions or shares, but a bedrock piece of financial advice is to prioritise eliminating non-tax-deductible debt,” Snell says.
“The return on other investments will vary, but if you’re paying 5 per cent interest rate on your mortgage you’re effectively getting a 5 per cent return on the money you use to pay it off. Apart from all the financial benefits, there’s a real sense of security that comes with knowing you own that asset outright.”
Steps for a debt-free retirement
1. Don’t over-commit when you take on a mortgage
Be realistic about how much you can afford in repayments so your mortgage is paid off before you retire.
2. Prioritise paying down your mortgage
Examine your budget to work out if there are ways to pay off your mortgage faster.
3. Maximise your super
Work out how much super you need to have a comfortable, independent life.
(These calculators can get you started.)